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By Puzarenko V.G.

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In Figs. 2. 6: Vector plots in an axial plane. a) Average flow. b) Instantaneous flow. (Values are interpolated to a cartesian grid) 35 Chapter 3. LES of a turbulent unconfined annular swirling jet. 7: Influence of the grid. 0 (top to bottom as indicated in the rightmost column). Solid line, H3; dashed line, H2; symbols, experimental data from B¨uchner & Petsch (2004). Left, axial velocity, ux /Ub . Centre, tangential velocity, uθ /Ub . Right, radial velocity, ur /Ub . Observe that the ranges of the vertical axis have been adjusted individually.

Left, /Ub . /Ub . Centre, tangential velocity, urms axial velocity, urms θ x rms Right, radial velocity, ur /Ub . 3 Co-flow The sensitivity studies performed in the two previous sections are standard practice in any thorough investigation using LES. e. a jet in an unconfined configuration. A weak co-flow is usually introduced in the simulations of turbulent free jets (see for example Le-Ribault et al. (1999); Stanley et al. (2002)), in order to feed in the fluid to be entrained. These authors reported that there are no effects on the jet dynamics if the lateral boundaries were placed sufficiently far away and the co-flow is small.

E. in addition to the common mean shear ∂ u x /∂r, another shear component is present, ∂ uθ /∂r. g. periodic vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder, the results obtained with RANS models are usually unsatisfactory. For these cases an unsteady approach is mandatory. This can be done within the RANS framework using the so-called Unsteady RANS (URANS) approach. In eq. g. by ensemble averaging, and therefore in eq. 8) the time derivative of the mean remains present, see for example Durbin (2002).

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