By Douglas Walton
This paintings takes an analytical examine the philosophical idea of fallacy and provides an up to date critique of its usefulness for argumentation reports.
Read Online or Download A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy (Studies in Rhetoric and Communication) PDF
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Extra info for A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy (Studies in Rhetoric and Communication)
The Critical Discussion 99 2. The Negotiation 103 3. The Inquiry 106 4. The Quarrel 109 5. Information-Seeking Dialogue 113 6. Deliberation 116 7. Dialectical Shifts 118 8. Illicit Dialectical Shifts 120 9. Double Deceptions 123 10. Mixed Dialogues 126 Chapter Five: Argumentation Schemes 130 1. Presumptive Reasoning 132 2. Case-Based Reasoning 134 3. Verbal Classification 137 4. Causal Reasoning 140 5. Commitment-Based Reasoning 143 6. Rule-Based Reasoning 146 7. Position-to-Know Reasoning 149 8.
Such a violation does not Page 17 identify the failure as a distinctive fallacy of this or that type (or even as a fallacy at all). As we will see in this book, the fallacies are first and foremost identified as being certain distinctive types of arguments, as indicated by being instances of their characteristic argumentation schemes. These characteristic argumentation schemes are identified in chapter 5. Each has a distinctive form as a type of argument. 11 The ad hominem argument can be clearly distinguished, for example, from the ad verecundiam argument using these schemes.
And it is exactly how such a failure occurs, by what means, that defines which fallacy occurred, or whether a fallacy occurred. For failure to fulfill burden of proof is not itself a fallacy at all, much less any specific fallacy. What needs to be determined is what specific means were used to carry out the failure. The means are basically arguments, types of argumentation that must be used in certain ways, if the goals are to be achieved. Specific ways of misusing these arguments, ways that block the goals, are fallacies.