By Alan J. Southward, Craig M. Young, Lee A. Fuiman
Quantity forty three is an eclectic quantity with studies on ecology and biogeography of marine parasites; fecundity: features and function in life-history options of marine invertebrates; the ecology of Southern Ocean Pack-ice; and organic and distant sensing views of pigmentation in coral reef organisms. Advances in Marine Biology used to be first released in 1963. Now edited via A.J. Southward (Marine organic organization, UK), P.A. Tyler (Southampton Oceanography organization, UK), C.M. younger (Harbor department Oceanographic establishment, united states) and L.A. Fuiman (University of Texas, USA), the serial publishes in-depth and up to date reports on quite a lot of subject matters with a purpose to entice postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries technology, ecology, zoology, oceanography. Eclectic volumes within the sequence are supplemented via thematic volumes on such issues as The Biology of Calanoid Copepods . Key positive aspects * AMB first released 1963 * This quantity offers a range of stories at the biology of lesser-known taxa of the phylum Mollusca, together with: * The typically diminutive protobranch bivalves * The slug-like shelled opisthobranchs * The hugely really expert and evolutionarily complicated tusk shells * the gorgeous, worthwhile, but frustratingly hard-to-collect slit shells
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Extra info for Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 43
With permission from Elsevier Science. C and D reproduced from: Poulin, R. and Rohde, K. (1997). Comparing the richness of metazoan ectoparasite communities of marine fishes: controlling for host phylogeny. Oecologia 110, 278-283, with permission from Springer Verlag. 50 KLAUS ROHDE A x Atlantic& Pacificcoasts of Canada • Antarctic • TropicalIndo-Pacific ~10 o to. ~_ o. 6 ffl x o x x x~ 4 x E xx r- x X x x x ~ x xx x ~U ~1111 • • • x x o x• x x X XX = 2 x x ~ x • x x Ln ( m e a n n u m b e r of parasites per host +1) B ~10 o t- =' Antarctic o "Deepwater"NSW ,, NorthernNSW o PacificCanada Brazil • • • Argentina • TropicalIndo-Pacific ~4 E • • e= 2 o=x~oO ii D = o .
This clearly misses the point: the argument for " e m p t y niches" is not ecological but evolutionary. " E m p t y niche" simply implies that there is no reason to assume that identical or similar habitats (hosts) cannot support similar numbers of species (parasites) occupying them, provided there has been sufficient evolutionary time. In many fish species, gills are completely empty or only one small microhabitat is occupied; the niche is ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHYOF MARINE PARASITES 27 not wider, and it does not expand in the absence of competitors (see also Rohde, 1981).
Studies on insects have indeed shown that fast sympatric speciation by few mutations is possible (references in Rohde, 1993, page 213). ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHYOF MARINE PARASITES 47 Parasites of pinnipeds are mainly of terrestrial origin, but some are of marine origin (Menier, 2000). g. in Lake Baikal) see Rohde (1993). 4. 1. Latitudinal gradients in species richness An increase in species numbers from high to low latitudes is well documented for many terrestrial plant and animal groups, although there are many exceptions (for reviews see Rohde, 1992, 1999).