By Gordon Pask, Warren S. McCulloch
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Filenote: PDF retail is from EBL. It does seem like the standard you get if you happen to rip from CRCnetbase (e. g. TOC numbers are hyperlinked). it truly is TFs retail re-release in their 2005 version of this name. i feel its this caliber because the Amazon Kindle continues to be displaying released by way of UCL press v. TF
Publish 12 months notice: First released in 1997 via UCL press.
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Additional resources for An Approach to Cybernetics
The nne memory element, 4~+- R~o"wl$ I. Enri_nt TN,;. .... ' '1 ...... :. _-_. _- . : ,"..... ", '\onrthJ . " " ' - ... loci I I pia",. nd;a,o...... oj: _ t... poho ·lrtIfidoI lKW .... ' '~ pcflo4l ,"'" thot. ~ '" . "..... " ,.... l"ifra e ,op"~ctiofl' gr, ""'~;',;:,::: but go to 01 ... dlml, "'-''''''I'"d. M r,::::--:R:':DdQU~ Fig. 17 (ii). An imitative unit, made up of singte action autonomous elements (equi valently 'artificial neuroncs'), performs trial s upon in environmen t and also interrogates an internal 'memory', (Each 'memory' register is represented by a small circle at a line intersection).
J (1) is a function of an environment coupled to some of the motor elements (the sensory connections are optional) the simula tor learns by trial and reward. Notice that only some of the elements are coupled. If all except the unshaded memory elements were omitted it would be true to say that segment I related environment to environment. segment H internal activity at the first level of an hierarchy to itself. V environment to internal activity. VI internal activity to environment. Segment III defines a higher level in the hierarchy a part of the network learning about activity in II.
To illustrate the point, imagine a busy executive (who acts as an overall controller in the hierarchy) disturbed by 111 callers. ,·M, perhaps, after several trials. The receptionist who keeps the job is able to perform the selective operation of prevaricating with callers so that, for example, the one who is welcome each hour is accepted, and the nt-I are rejected. ,·- per hour. Maybe she lasts 100 hours. Log,·.... t'M units, and commonly m ~ M. The trick. is, he made his selection from the right kind of things - receptionists - which happened to be available.