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By Edward Harper Parker

The upshot of it used to be that during 771 B.C. the Emperor used to be killed through the Tartars in conflict, and it was once in simple terms by means of securing the army advice of the semi-Tartar Warden of the Marches that the imperial dynasty was once stored. because it was once, the Emperor's capital used to be completely moved east from the instant neighbourhood of what we name Si-ngan Fu in Shen Si province to the speedy neighbourhood of Ho-nan Fu within the smooth Ho Nan province; and as a gift for his providers the Warden was once granted approximately the total of the unique imperial patrimony west of the Yellow River bend and on each side of the Wei Valley. This was once additionally within the yr 771 B.C., and this is often relatively one of many nice pivot-points in chinese language historical past, of equivalent weight with the virtually contemporaneous founding of Rome, and the sluggish substitution of a Roman centre for a Greek centre within the improvement and civilization of the a long way West.

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D. -- Ts'i succession and Sung's claim to Protectorate--Tartar influence in Ts'i--Ts'u's claim to the hegemony--Ridiculous orthodox chivalry--Great development of Tsin--A much-married ruler-- Marriage complications--Interesting story of the political wanderings of the Second Protector--Tries to replace Kwan-tsz deceased--Pleasures of Ts'i life--Mean behaviour of orthodox princes to the Wanderer--Frank attitude of Ts'u--Successive Tartar-born rulers of Tsin, and war with T&n--Second Protector gains his own Tsin throne--Puppet Emperor at a durbar--Tsin obtains cession of territory--Triangular war between the Powers-- Description of the political situation--China 2500 years ago beginning to move as she is now doing again CHAPTER XI RELIGION I'Jo religion except natural religion--Religion not separate from administrative ritual--The titles of "King" and "Emperor"--Prayer common, but most other of our own religious notions absent--Local religion in barbarous states--Distinction between loss and annihilation of power--Ducal rank and marquesses--Distinction between grantee sacrifices and personal sacrifices--Prayer and the ancient Emperor Shun, whose grave is in Hu Nan--Chou Emperor's sickness and brother's written prayer--Offers to sacrifice self-- Messages from the dead--Lao-tsz's book--Ts'in and conquered Tsin Sacrifices--Further instances of prayer CHAPTER XII ANCESTRAL WORSHIP Ancestral tablets carried in war-Shrines graduated according to rank--Description of shrines--Specific case of the King of Ts'u-- Instance of the First August Emperor much later--Temple of Heaven, Peking, and the British occupation of it--Modern Japanese instance of reporting to Heaven and ancestors--Tsin and Ts'i instances of it--Sacrificial tablets--Writing materials--Lu's special spiritual status--Desecration of tombs and flogging of corpses--Destruction of ancestral temples--Imperial presents of sacrificial meat-- Fasting and purification--Intricate mourning rules.

CHENG: principality in Ho Nan (same family as Chou). SUNG: principality taking in the four corners of Ho Nan, Shan Tung, An Hwei, and Kiang Su (Shang dynasty family). , preceding even the Hia dynasty). WEI: principality taking in corners of Ho Nan, Chih Li, and Shan Tung (family of the Chou emperors). TS'AO: principality in South-west Shan Tung; neighbour of Lu, Wei, and Sung (same family as Chou). TS'AI: principality in Ho Nan, south of CH'EN (same family as Chou). LU: principality in South-west Shan Tung, between Ts'ao and Ts'i (its founder was the brother of the Chou founder).

CHAPTER XLVII RULERS AND PEOPLE Personal character of wars--People's interests ignored--Instances-- Comparisons with the Golden Fleece and Naboth's vineyard--Second Protector avenges scurvy treatment--The halt, the maim, and the blind--Jephthah's rash vow-Divinity of kings--Ts'u more tyrannical than China--Responsibility of Chinese before Heaven--The King can do no wrong--Emperors reign under Heaven--Heaven in the confidence of rulers--Sacred person of kings--Distinction between official and private death--Double chivalry of a Tsin general--The gods and Tsz-ch'an's scepticism.

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