By LINDA WILSON-PAUWELS, PATRICIA A. STEWART, ELIZABETH J. AKESSON
Authored through a similar group that created Cranial Nerves, this ebook presents an easy-to-follow assessment of autonomic nerves. the 1st half describes their constitution and serve as. the second one half addresses autonomic keep an eye on of person organ platforms in a problem-based studying layout. all through, Autonomic Nerves describes afferent pathways, integrating buildings and mechanisms, efferent pathways, and the autonomic effectors. rules of autonomic neurotransmission also are mentioned.
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Additional info for Autonomic Nerves
Their role is t o direct regulation of t h e internal environment. T h e c e l l bodies of p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c a f f e r e n t s r e s i d e in t h e i n f e r i o r glossopharyngeal ganglion a n d in t h e inferior ( n o d o s e ) vagal ganglion. Eighty percent of t h e axons in t h e vagus nerve are sensory in function. The central processes of t h e parasympathetic sensory neurons terminate primarily in t h e nucleus of t h e tractus solitarius. ,t h e hypothalamus a n d insular cortex) (Figure 3-4).
The motor area is undoubtedly involved in t h e production of somatic motor actions involved in autonomic activities, for example, chewing a n d swallowing. Autonomic Integrating Components Figure 4-4 The areas of the cortex (insular,medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal, and the sensorimotor cortex indicated in blue) that are thought to play a significant role in autonomic function. 53 54 Autonomic Nerves Limbic System The limbic system forms links between cognitive activity a n d visceromotor r e s p o n s e s .
Reflex autonomic pathways to the ciliary and pupillary muscles adjust the lens and pupil thereby changing focal planes. For clarity, part of the pathway between the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus and the visual cortex, the geniculocalcarine pathway, has been interrupted in the illustration. 5I 52 Autonomic Nerves CEREBRAL CORTEX AND LIMBIC SYSTEM Although primitive drives such as hunger, thirst, a n d reproduction may be o r g a n i z e d in t h e h y p o t h a l a m u s , full i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e s e d r i v e s i n t o behavioral activities that regulate nutrient intake, elimination, a n d reproduction requires activity in large areas of t h e cerebral cortex.