By John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)
The tough clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, is a vital advertisement, leisure and ecological inhabitant of coastal bays alongside the east and gulf coasts of the us. This identify represents the 1st cutting-edge precis of present wisdom of the challenging clam via specialists in a number of disciplines. Containing a compendium of literature at the challenging clam, accomplished chapters on numerous facets of its biology in addition to summaries of information together with the grey literature in this economically vital species, this quantity represents a complete resource of organic info for managers and researchers attracted to shallow marine and estuarine ecosystems. study scholars and bosses charged with protecting coastal ecosystems also will discover a wealth of heritage fabric. the 1st synthesis of accessible info at the mercenaria mercenaria, this identify is a reaction to the wishes of people concerned about not easy clam aquaculture and scientists drawn to molluscan biology, coastal ocean ecology and comparable fields. Over 2300 files were synthesized, and bankruptcy authors have further unpublished info in addition to new fabric.
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Extra resources for Biology of the Hard Clam
The sculpture changes from one of discrete, well spaced thickened ribs to closely spaced threads that can become closely spaced lamellae. If Securella evolved from Placamen in the northwest Pacific and then migrated across the Pacific and down the west coast of North America at the beginning of the Oligocene, then the development of an enlarged rugose nymph occurred after the migration of Securella into the Caribbean and the evolution of Mercenaria. Ontogenetic data support this: the relative nymph length of juvenile Mercenaria mercenaria is not significantly different from that of extant Securella (Harte, 1998).
Clallamensis, adapted to a presumably different environment of coarser sediment and rougher water. Mercenaria vancouverensis is also similar to M. cryptolineata and M. clallamensis; the small, eroded types differ only in having a narrower ligamental groove (Parker, 1949). In addition, Parker (1949) placed in synonymy with M. ) cryptolineata two other described species, M. ) lineolata (Clark, 1918) and M. ) mediostriata (Clark, 1918), noting that all three forms were found in association and that differences appeared to be due to degrees of weathering and individual variation.
A few thin brown zigzag lines are sometimes present near the umbones. The interior is predominantly white, although the posterior end, sometimes including the posterior adductor scar and extending around the area ventral to the pallial line, is usually colored a deep bluish purple. 4 Type Material The holotype of the hard clam, Venus m e r c e n a r i a Linnaeus (1758), resides in the collection of the Linnean Society of London (Fig. 3). Dodge (1952) noted that Linnaeus (1758) originally described the type locality as Pennsylvania, a state with no coastline, which at that time was united with Delaware, a state with a generous coastline; thus, Dodge (1952) suggests, the type locality should be amended to the coast of Delaware.