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By Antonio Santosuosso

In this complete review of historical conflict, Antonio Santosuosso explores how the tactical and strategic strategies of battle replaced among the start of the 5th century b.c. and the center of the second one century b.c. and why the West—Greece, Macedonia, and Rome—triumphed over the East—understood geographically as Persia or ideologically as Carthage. He additionally indicates how the function of warrior on the topic of the function of citizen and the way the symbols and propaganda stemming from battle emphasised and promoted the values of Western societies.When contemplating the evolving position of the citizen as warrior, Santosuosso unearths that those roles have been indistinguishable from one another within the past levels of classical Greece. The Peloponnesian warfare, besides the fact that, challenged the program by way of introducing new military varieties, reminiscent of mercenaries, peltasts, and lightweight infantry. quickly after, Macedonia brought the cavalry, thrusting it, besides heavy infantry, right into a position of prominence and diminishing the complementary roles of citizen and warrior standard of past instances. Later, the arrival of the Roman legion persevered this evolution, changing back where of the citizen in historic society.Rich in research, Soldiers, voters, and the Symbols of War is a important and available resource for college kids of historic conflict and classical society and offers thorough assurance of the main battles of antiquity—Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea, Sphacteria, Leuctra, Granicus, Issus, Gaugamela, Synoscephalae, Pydna, Trebia, Cannae, Ilipa, and Zama.

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Extra resources for Soldiers, Citizens, And The Symbols Of War: From Classical Greece To Republican Rome, 500-167 B.c. (History and Warfare.)

Example text

All this suggests that it would have benefited the I'ersians to contain the Greeks at a distmce as far as poss~bie,while ~t was in the Interest of the Creeks t o join hand-to-hand battle immediately. 3 a r ~ n sm d armor about half h ~ body s we~ght,could harcily run more than a few meters ~f lie wanted to contact the enemy with any semblance of physical vigor. 'This ruust have rneant that the hopl~tesrushed the enemy only in the I'tst 20 to 30 meters or so of the k ~ l l ~ nrange g of the bow.

The Athe~li~a~ls, tor example, had no cavalry at all at Marathon. Rut the d i m ~ n ~ s h erole d of the cavalry also reflected the rnore egalttartan social pr~nciplesot rlie l~opllte era. First, '1s ment~oned,only the kery rich could buy ,111d keep horses. Second, the cavalry could receive the glum job of all the fighting by elilnlnating the fleeing enemy or by a flank or rear action. For t h ~ to s be acceptable, not only ~ n i l ~ t a rthlnk~ng y but also S O C I ~~I S S U I ~ ~ ~ I hdd O I I Sto c11'1nge.

The decis~onto beg111 a battle was ~nextr~cably t ~ e dto the will of tlie gods as well. , Epaminondas and the Theban leaders seemed t o have used a variety of ruearts connected w ~ t krelig~onto r a s e tlle spir~tsof the Thebans and t o discourage the Spartans. The Tiiebans were told they were going to fight on a terrain that had been desecrated by the Spartans, who had raped two Theban virgins there; they were illso told t o place g,~rl,~nds on the monument commemorating the Spartans' evil deed.

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