Capitalism

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By Karl Marx

Marx’s Theories of Surplus-Value is the fourth quantity of his huge Das Kapital. Divided into 3 components, this long paintings reports vintage fiscal analyses of work and cost (Smith, Ricardo, Malthus, and others), targeting the idea that of “surplus value”—the distinction among the total worth of a worker’s hard work and the wages acquired for this exertions.

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Theories of Surplus-Value

Marx’s Theories of Surplus-Value is the fourth quantity of his enormous Das Kapital. Divided into 3 components, this long paintings reports vintage financial analyses of work and price (Smith, Ricardo, Malthus, and others), targeting the idea that of “surplus value”—the distinction among the whole worth of a worker’s hard work and the wages acquired for this hard work.

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He predicted that when capital is unable to spend more, relatively, on labour, its profits would decline. But as Brennan is not the first to observe, the belief that the rate of profit will tend to fall has not been borne out wherever production flourishes and profit grows on the basis of ‘natural resources’ rather than labour-­ power. This prompts Brennan to propose a revision of Marx’ theory questions his definitions of variable labour as labour power, ‘pure and simple’, and of constant capital as dead labour.

More than the abolition of waiting time is at issue here: the message, instantly turned into a demand and feeding a sense of entitlement, is that I will be waited upon. The fact that commodities show up as within the effortless reach of instant gratification recalls Freud’s pleasure principle. But whereas this principle, as theorized by Freud, does accord 28 The foundational fantasy goes global with the desire for instant gratification implicit in commodities, according to Brennan it does not account for the other desires revealed in their present-­day design – namely, the desire to be waited upon and the belief that one is the source of agency that makes it happen; the desire to dominate and control the other who is an fact active in providing; and last but not least, ‘the aggressive desire towards the other, if we take pollution as evidence of aggression’ (2000: 23).

But why not acknowledge that goodness, by being shared – arguably its very essence – generates more of itself? Why insist that there has to be a winner and a loser, as if giver and receiver of goodness are engaged in a zero-­sum battle in which what one gets the other loses? To see why it is so difficult to get out of this logic once one has entered it, Brennan rightly reminds us that envy is not only about possession. It is about rivalry, the rivalry that goes with making a comparison between myself and the other.

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